Sens. Bob Casey (D-PA) and Brian Schatz (D-HI) have recently introduced the No Robot Bosses Act (the Bill) to the Senate in an effort to regulate employers’ use of automated decision systems in the workplace. The Bill covers past and present candidates for employment as well as workers “performing work for remuneration.” This broad definition is of particular importance as many employers use AI to sift through past applications to solicit reapplications if a new position opens up.
The EEOC releases a technical assistance document exploring employers’ Title VII liability when incorporating AI tools and automated systems in employment selection procedures, and a new Texas district court rule prevents attorneys’ unchecked use of AI in preparing legal documents — we’re exploring these developments and the latest insurance regulatory news from California and Colorado in our briefing.
Our latest briefing dives into new local laws about AI and how it affects both employment and insurance industries, the launch of NIST’s Trustworthy & Responsible Artificial Intelligence Resource Center and the plans for it moving forward, new guidance from the FDA on cybersecurity and on artificial intelligence/machine-learning frameworks, and the Coalition for Health AI’s quality assurance standards for use of AI in the health care and related industries.
The New York City Department of Consumer and Worker Protection (DCWP) announced that it will not start enforcing the law regulating automated employment decision tools until at least April 15, 2023. Local Law 144 of 2021 was scheduled to take effect January 1, but the DCWP attributed the delayed enforcement of the law to the high volume of public comments it received addressing its proposed regulations to implement the law. This law is the very first law within the United States squarely and comprehensively addressing the use of AI in making employment decisions. The law requires that before an employer uses an “automated employment decision tool” (AEDT, which is basically AI) that it conduct a bias audit within a year of using the tool, and that certain notices be given to candidates who may be subject to the AEDT, with an option to opt out of the AEDT process.
National Labor Relations Board and Federal Trade Commission execute Memorandum of Understanding to promote fair competition and advance workers’ rights.
On July 19, 2022, the NLRB and FTC formalized a partnership between the agencies that, among other things, will seek to protect worker rights from algorithmic decision-making. This is the most high-profile instance of the NLRB identifying algorithmic decision-making as something that could impact employee rights protected by the National Labor Relations Act. Employers with organized workforces (or workforces that could be the target of union organizing) should be aware of this development and the NLRB’s growing cooperation with the FTC.
Employers increasingly rely on computer-based tools to assist them in hiring workers, monitoring worker performance, determining pay or promotions, and establishing terms and conditions of employment. Automatic resume-screening software, hiring software, chatbot software, video interviewing software, analytics software, and employee monitoring and worker management software allow employers to find efficiencies in day-to-day employee management. Software may scan resumes and prioritize the use of certain keywords, rate employees based on their keystrokes, facial expressions or speech patterns, and obtain information about qualifications and cognitive abilities before a hiring manager ever takes a second look.
On May 12, 2022, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) issued separate guidance addressing employers’ use of algorithms and artificial intelligence (AI) in employment-related decision-making. Both technical assistance documents focus specifically on how employers’ use of these technologies may adversely impact individuals with disabilities and violate the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).